Substance CAS number Use Effect Other information
4-methyl-benzophenone 134-84-9 Photo initiator, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] SML group TDI of 0.01 mg/kg body weight, derived from toxicity testing on benzophenone, due to structural similarity to benzophenone assumed to cause liver hypertrophy ([2]) OECD SIDS*
Benzophenone  119-61-9 Photosensitizer in printing inks, UV protective agent in polymers, polymerization inhibiter for styrene, plasticizer in food contact rubber articles [3]Printing ink of paper and board packaging [1] allowed as additive in FCM, EU PIM positive responses in uterotrophic assay testing estrogenic activity [4] OECD HPV**
4-Benzobiphenyl 2128-93-0 Photoinitiator, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] N.A. OECD SIDS*
Ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate 10287-53-3 UV absorber, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] N.A. OECD SIDS*
2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate 21245-02-3 UV absorber, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] Antagonistic estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay (Antagonist EC 50 (nM) +S9d) [5] OECD SIDS*
2,2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone 24650-42-8 UV absorber, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1], found in beverages [6] and milk drinks [7] Estrogenic activity in inhibition and Lineweaver-Burk plots [8] OECD SIDS*
4-(4-Methylphenylthio)benzophenone 83846-85-9 Photoinitiator, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] N.A. OECD SIDS*

*OECD SIDS (OECD screening information data set)

** OECD HPV (OECD High production volume chemicals)

1.         Bradley, E.L., et al., Printing ink compounds in foods: UK survey results. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B, 2012: p. 1-11.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2012.725774.

2.         EFSA, Toxicological evaluation of benzophenone1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on food contact materials,enzymes, flavourings and processing aids (CEF). The EFSA Journal, 2009(1104): p. 1-30.http://www.efsa.europa.eu/de/scdocs/doc/1104.pdf

3.         Ash, M. and I. Ash, Handbook of Food Packaging Chemicals and Materials (2nd Edition), Synapse Information Resources, Inc.http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=2193.

4.         Suzuki, T., et al., Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of 17 benzophenone derivatives used as UV stabilizers and sunscreens. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2005. 203(1): p. 9-17.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X04003539.

5.         Morohoshi, K., et al., Estrogenic activity of 37 components of commercial sunscreen lotions evaluated by in vitro assays. Toxicology in Vitro, 2005. 19(4): p. 457-469.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233305000111.

6.         Sanches-Silva, A., et al., Study of the Migration of Photoinitiators Used in Printed Food-Packaging Materials into Food Simulants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009.57(20): p. 9516-9523.http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf8035758.

7.         Gil-Vergara, A., C. Blasco, and Y. Picó, Determination of 2-isopropyl thioxanthone and 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate in milk: comparison of gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2007. 389(2): p. 605-617.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-007-1482-x.

8.         Laws, S.C., et al., Nature of the Binding Interaction for 50 Structurally Diverse Chemicals with Rat Estrogen Receptors. Toxicological Sciences, 2006. 94(1): p. 46-56.http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/94/1/46.abstract.

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