Substance CAS number Use Effect Other information
4-methyl-benzophenone 134-84-9 Photo initiator, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] SML group TDI of 0.01 mg/kg body weight, derived from toxicity testing on benzophenone, due to structural similarity to benzophenone assumed to cause liver hypertrophy ([2]) OECD SIDS*
Benzophenone  119-61-9 Photosensitizer in printing inks, UV protective agent in polymers, polymerization inhibiter for styrene, plasticizer in food contact rubber articles [3]Printing ink of paper and board packaging [1] allowed as additive in FCM, EU PIM positive responses in uterotrophic assay testing estrogenic activity [4] OECD HPV**
4-Benzobiphenyl 2128-93-0 Photoinitiator, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] N.A. OECD SIDS*
Ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate 10287-53-3 UV absorber, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] N.A. OECD SIDS*
2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate 21245-02-3 UV absorber, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] Antagonistic estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay (Antagonist EC 50 (nM) +S9d) [5] OECD SIDS*
2,2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone 24650-42-8 UV absorber, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1], found in beverages [6] and milk drinks [7] Estrogenic activity in inhibition and Lineweaver-Burk plots [8] OECD SIDS*
4-(4-Methylphenylthio)benzophenone 83846-85-9 Photoinitiator, printing ink for paper and board packaging [1] N.A. OECD SIDS*

*OECD SIDS (OECD screening information data set)

** OECD HPV (OECD High production volume chemicals)

1.         Bradley, E.L., et al., Printing ink compounds in foods: UK survey results. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B, 2012: p. 1-11.

2.         EFSA, Toxicological evaluation of benzophenone1 Scientific Opinion of the Panel on food contact materials,enzymes, flavourings and processing aids (CEF). The EFSA Journal, 2009(1104): p. 1-30.

3.         Ash, M. and I. Ash, Handbook of Food Packaging Chemicals and Materials (2nd Edition), Synapse Information Resources, Inc.

4.         Suzuki, T., et al., Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of 17 benzophenone derivatives used as UV stabilizers and sunscreens. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2005. 203(1): p. 9-17.

5.         Morohoshi, K., et al., Estrogenic activity of 37 components of commercial sunscreen lotions evaluated by in vitro assays. Toxicology in Vitro, 2005. 19(4): p. 457-469.

6.         Sanches-Silva, A., et al., Study of the Migration of Photoinitiators Used in Printed Food-Packaging Materials into Food Simulants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009.57(20): p. 9516-9523.

7.         Gil-Vergara, A., C. Blasco, and Y. Picó, Determination of 2-isopropyl thioxanthone and 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate in milk: comparison of gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2007. 389(2): p. 605-617.

8.         Laws, S.C., et al., Nature of the Binding Interaction for 50 Structurally Diverse Chemicals with Rat Estrogen Receptors. Toxicological Sciences, 2006. 94(1): p. 46-56.