Substance CAS number Use Effect Other information
Benzophenone-3 131-57-7 UV absorber in plastics (ABS, cellulosic, polyester, PS, flexible and rigid PVC, VDC), stabilizer for acrylic food packaging[1], allowed as additive in FCM, EU PIM Androgenic receptor activation in the presence of dexamethasone [2], inhibitory effect on AR antagonist assay [3], uterotrophic effects (lower weight), bioaccumulation in adipose tissue, decreased AhR mRNA expression [4], causes systemic toxicity, has minimal effects on fertility and reproduction (RACB88076), decreases in epididymal sperm density, lengthens estrous cycle, increases liver and kidney weights in rats and mice (Tox-21 131-57-7) OECD SIDS*, US EPA report
Benzophenone-1 131-56-6 Stabilizer for lacquer coatings, polyolefins, polyvinyl chloride, etc.[5], allowed as additive in FCM, EU PIM Estrogenic activity in in vitro yeast assay [6], uterotrophic effect (increased uterus weight) [7] OECD SIDS*
4-aminobenzoic acid 150-13-0 UV absorber, used in the production of various esters [5] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [8] OECD SIDS*
2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-methyl-phenol 2440-22-4 used in PET bottles [910] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11] and in the Estradiol receptor ELISA assay [12] OECD HPV**, US EPA report
2-(2′-Hydroxy-3′,5′-di-tert-butylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole 3864-99-1 UV absorber, used in PET bottles [9,13] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11], acute toxicity in the form of increase of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and relative liver weight in freshwater crustacean [14] OECD SIDS*
Bumetrizole 3896-11-5 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [9] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11], a slight increase in the proportion of foetuses withincomplete ossification of sternebrae at a dose level of 3000 mg/kg bw/day in mice (repro tox study, OECD, report 2010), irritating to the eye, contact sensitizer (New Zealand EPA) OECD HPV**,NewZealand EPA reprot
2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, phosphite (3:1) 31570-04-4 Antioxidant, Used in PET bottles [9] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11] OECD HPV**,OECD report, US EPA report
2-benzotriazol-2-yl-4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenol  52188-76-8 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [9] N.A. OECD SIDS*
Phenol, 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-phenol 70321-86-72 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [9,13] N.A. N.A.
2-(4,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-5-[(hexyl)oxy]-phenol 147315-50-2 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [13] N.A. OECD SIDS*
4,4′-Dihydroxybenzophenone 611-99-4 UV filter, On EU additive and monomer list, used in PC plastics and printed circuit boards High estrogenic activity in hormone-responsive reporter assay [15], causes anapleudy (affecting reproductive success) [16] OECD SIDS*

*OECD SIDS (OECD screening information data set)

** OECD HPV (OECD High production volume chemicals)

1.         Ash, M. and I. Ash, Handbook of Food Packaging Chemicals and Materials (2nd Edition), Synapse Information Resources, Inc.http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=2193.

2.         Ma, R., et al., UV Filters with Antagonistic Action at Androgen Receptors in the MDA-kb2 Cell Transcriptional-Activation Assay. Toxicological Sciences, 2003. 74(1): p. 43-50.http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/74/1/43.abstract.

3.         Araki, N., et al., Screening for androgen receptor activities in 253 industrial chemicals by in vitro reporter gene assays using AR-EcoScreen cells. Toxicol In Vitro, 2005. 19(6): p. 831-42.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233305000706.

4.         Schlecht, C., et al., Effects of estradiol, benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-3 on the expression pattern of the estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta, the estrogen receptor-related receptor 1 (ERR1) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in adult ovariectomized rats.Toxicology, 2004. 205(1–2): p. 123-130.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300483X04003725.

5.         Sheftel, V.O., Indirect food additives and polymers, migration and toxicology. 2000, Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers

6.         Miller, D., et al., Estrogenic activity of phenolic additives determined by an in vitro yeast bioassay. Environ Health Perspect, 2001. 109(2): p. 133-8.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240632/.

7.         Koda, T., et al., Uterotrophic effects of benzophenone derivatives and a p-hydroxybenzoate used in ultraviolet screens. Environmental Research, 2005. 98(1): p. 40-45.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935104001008.

8.         Kuroki, H., et al., [Assessment of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as potential estrogens by yeast two-hybrid system]. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, 2001. 92(5): p. 158-66.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Kuroki%2C%20H.%2C%20et%20al.%2C%20%5BAssessment%20of%20hydroxylated%20metabolites%20of%20polychlorinated%20biphenyls%20and%20polychlorinated%20dibenzofurans%20as%20potential%20estrogens%20by%20yeast%20two-hybrid%20system%5D.%20Fukuoka%20Igaku%20Zasshi%2C%202001.%2092(5)%3A%20p.%20158-66.

9.         Monteiro, M., C. Nerin, and F.G. Reyes, Determination of UV stabilizers in PET bottles by high performance-size exclusion chromatography. Food Addit Contam, 1996. 13(5): p. 575-86.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8799719.

10.       Monteiro, M., et al., Migration of Tinuvin P, a UV stabilizer, from PET bottles into fatty-food simulants. Packaging Technology and Science, 1999. 12(5): p. 241-248.http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jws/pts/1999/00000012/00000005/art00478

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1522(199909/10)12:5<241::AID-PTS478>3.0.CO;2-V.

11.       Ogawa, Y., et al., Estrogenic activities of chemicals related to food contact plastics and rubbers tested by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Food Addit Contam, 2006. 23(4): p. 422-30.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Ogawa%2C%20Y.%2C%20et%20al.%2C%20Estrogenic%20activities%20of%20chemicals%20related%20to%20food%20contact%20plastics%20and%20rubbers%20tested%20by%20the%20yeast%20two-hybrid%20assay.%20Food%20Addit%20Contam%2C%202006.%2023(4)%3A%20p.%20422-30.

12.       Morohoshi, K., et al., Estrogenic activity of 37 components of commercial sunscreen lotions evaluated by in vitro assays. Toxicology in Vitro, 2005. 19(4): p. 457-469.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233305000111.

13.       Begley, T.H., et al., Migration of a UV stabilizer from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into food simulants. Food Addit Contam, 2004. 21(10): p. 1007-14.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Begley%2C%20T.H.%2C%20et%20al.%2C%20Migration%20of%20a%20UV%20stabilizer%20from%20polyethylene%20terephthalate%20(PET)%20into%20food%20simulants.%20Food%20Addit%20Contam%2C%202004.%2021(10)%3A%20p.%201007-14.

14.       Kim, J.W., et al., Acute toxicity of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers on freshwater crustacean (Daphnia pulex). J Toxicol Sci, 2011. 36(2): p. 247-51.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Kim%2C%20J.W.%2C%20et%20al.%2C%20Acute%20toxicity%20of%20benzotriazole%20ultraviolet%20stabilizers%20on%20freshwater%20crustacean%20(Daphnia%20pulex).%20J%20Toxicol%20Sci%2C%202011.%2036(2)%3A%20p.%20247-51.

15.       Suzuki, T., et al., Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of 17 benzophenone derivatives used as UV stabilizers and sunscreens. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2005. 203(1): p. 9-17.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X04003539.

16.       Chemsec. SIN LIST 2.0: 22 new substances. [webpage] 2011; Available from:http://www.chemsec.org/list/sin-list-20/22-new-substances.

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