Substance CAS number Use Effect Other information
Benzophenone-3 131-57-7 UV absorber in plastics (ABS, cellulosic, polyester, PS, flexible and rigid PVC, VDC), stabilizer for acrylic food packaging[1], allowed as additive in FCM, EU PIM Androgenic receptor activation in the presence of dexamethasone [2], inhibitory effect on AR antagonist assay [3], uterotrophic effects (lower weight), bioaccumulation in adipose tissue, decreased AhR mRNA expression [4], causes systemic toxicity, has minimal effects on fertility and reproduction (RACB88076), decreases in epididymal sperm density, lengthens estrous cycle, increases liver and kidney weights in rats and mice (Tox-21 131-57-7) OECD SIDS*, US EPA report
Benzophenone-1 131-56-6 Stabilizer for lacquer coatings, polyolefins, polyvinyl chloride, etc.[5], allowed as additive in FCM, EU PIM Estrogenic activity in in vitro yeast assay [6], uterotrophic effect (increased uterus weight) [7] OECD SIDS*
4-aminobenzoic acid 150-13-0 UV absorber, used in the production of various esters [5] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [8] OECD SIDS*
2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-methyl-phenol 2440-22-4 used in PET bottles [910] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11] and in the Estradiol receptor ELISA assay [12] OECD HPV**, US EPA report
2-(2′-Hydroxy-3′,5′-di-tert-butylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole 3864-99-1 UV absorber, used in PET bottles [9,13] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11], acute toxicity in the form of increase of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and relative liver weight in freshwater crustacean [14] OECD SIDS*
Bumetrizole 3896-11-5 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [9] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11], a slight increase in the proportion of foetuses withincomplete ossification of sternebrae at a dose level of 3000 mg/kg bw/day in mice (repro tox study, OECD, report 2010), irritating to the eye, contact sensitizer (New Zealand EPA) OECD HPV**,NewZealand EPA reprot
2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, phosphite (3:1) 31570-04-4 Antioxidant, Used in PET bottles [9] Estrogenic activity in Yeast Two-Hybrid Assay [11] OECD HPV**,OECD report, US EPA report
2-benzotriazol-2-yl-4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenol  52188-76-8 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [9] N.A. OECD SIDS*
Phenol, 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-phenol 70321-86-72 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [9,13] N.A. N.A.
2-(4,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-5-[(hexyl)oxy]-phenol 147315-50-2 UV absorber, Used in PET bottles [13] N.A. OECD SIDS*
4,4′-Dihydroxybenzophenone 611-99-4 UV filter, On EU additive and monomer list, used in PC plastics and printed circuit boards High estrogenic activity in hormone-responsive reporter assay [15], causes anapleudy (affecting reproductive success) [16] OECD SIDS*

*OECD SIDS (OECD screening information data set)

** OECD HPV (OECD High production volume chemicals)

1.         Ash, M. and I. Ash, Handbook of Food Packaging Chemicals and Materials (2nd Edition), Synapse Information Resources, Inc.

2.         Ma, R., et al., UV Filters with Antagonistic Action at Androgen Receptors in the MDA-kb2 Cell Transcriptional-Activation Assay. Toxicological Sciences, 2003. 74(1): p. 43-50.

3.         Araki, N., et al., Screening for androgen receptor activities in 253 industrial chemicals by in vitro reporter gene assays using AR-EcoScreen cells. Toxicol In Vitro, 2005. 19(6): p. 831-42.

4.         Schlecht, C., et al., Effects of estradiol, benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-3 on the expression pattern of the estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta, the estrogen receptor-related receptor 1 (ERR1) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in adult ovariectomized rats.Toxicology, 2004. 205(1–2): p. 123-130.

5.         Sheftel, V.O., Indirect food additives and polymers, migration and toxicology. 2000, Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers

6.         Miller, D., et al., Estrogenic activity of phenolic additives determined by an in vitro yeast bioassay. Environ Health Perspect, 2001. 109(2): p. 133-8.

7.         Koda, T., et al., Uterotrophic effects of benzophenone derivatives and a p-hydroxybenzoate used in ultraviolet screens. Environmental Research, 2005. 98(1): p. 40-45.

8.         Kuroki, H., et al., [Assessment of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as potential estrogens by yeast two-hybrid system]. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi, 2001. 92(5): p. 158-66.

9.         Monteiro, M., C. Nerin, and F.G. Reyes, Determination of UV stabilizers in PET bottles by high performance-size exclusion chromatography. Food Addit Contam, 1996. 13(5): p. 575-86.

10.       Monteiro, M., et al., Migration of Tinuvin P, a UV stabilizer, from PET bottles into fatty-food simulants. Packaging Technology and Science, 1999. 12(5): p. 241-248.<241::AID-PTS478>3.0.CO;2-V.

11.       Ogawa, Y., et al., Estrogenic activities of chemicals related to food contact plastics and rubbers tested by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Food Addit Contam, 2006. 23(4): p. 422-30.

12.       Morohoshi, K., et al., Estrogenic activity of 37 components of commercial sunscreen lotions evaluated by in vitro assays. Toxicology in Vitro, 2005. 19(4): p. 457-469.

13.       Begley, T.H., et al., Migration of a UV stabilizer from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into food simulants. Food Addit Contam, 2004. 21(10): p. 1007-14.

14.       Kim, J.W., et al., Acute toxicity of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers on freshwater crustacean (Daphnia pulex). J Toxicol Sci, 2011. 36(2): p. 247-51.

15.       Suzuki, T., et al., Estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of 17 benzophenone derivatives used as UV stabilizers and sunscreens. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2005. 203(1): p. 9-17.

16.       Chemsec. SIN LIST 2.0: 22 new substances. [webpage] 2011; Available from: