Rapid and cost-effective non-animal-based in vitro bioassays can be used to improve the toxicological testing of food contact materials; journal article reviews currently available assays and future challenges

Circular economy

A circular economy seeks to maintain the value of products and close the material loops in industrial systems, while minimizing waste and reducing raw material and energy inputs. Increased recycling of food packaging waste is seen as an important component enabling the transition to a circular economy, but it presents particular challenges, especially with regard to chemical safety.


Microplastics are an invisible form of plastic pollution; effects on human health and the environment are largely unknown; summary article and FPF dossier define microplastics, explain sources and occurrence, focus on food contact materials

Migration modeling

Mathematical modeling of chemical migration from food packaging into food is mainly applicable to plastic materials; useful tool for regulatory compliance testing, risk assessment, safe packaging design, estimating consumer exposure; new approaches for other food contact materials needed

Non-intentionally added substances (NIAS)

NIAS occur in all types of food contact materials, are often unknown, may migrate into food; summary article and dossier provide definitions, examples, legal background, risk assessment strategies

Mineral oil hydrocarbons

Mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) are commonly measured in food and human tissues; food contact materials present an important source of MOHs; toxic properties and bioaccumulation potential of MOHs reason for concern

EU Parliament Report on FCMs

In October 2016, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the implementation of the Food Contact Materials Regulation EC 1935/2004. A wide variety of issues is addressed to better protect public health and support functioning of the internal market.

Can coatings

Epoxy-based can coatings are currently being replaced by alternatives because of toxicological evidence, public discussions, and recent regulatory decisions. FPF article provides background information on the requirements, materials and properties of can coatings.

Adverse outcome pathways

Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) describes the sequence of events linking initial molecular perturbations to adverse outcomes in organisms and populations; this framework supports the use of high-throughput animal-free toxicity testing methods in regulatory decision-making

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

While few perfluorinated compounds have been phased out due to health concerns, other per- and polyfluoroalkyl (PFASs) compounds continue to be used for food contact materials. The Food Packaging Forum summarizes chemistry, applications, health concerns, and regulation of PFASs.


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