On February 27, 2014 the scientific blog Science 2.0 reported on a study showing that bisphenol A (BPA) compromised organ development in monkeys (vom Saal, et al. 2014). Vom Saal, lead author of the study and Curators Professor of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri, states that this is the first study to show that the effects previously observed in rodent studies also occur in primates. Detailed effects observed in the study can be found in the following publications:
- Van Winkle, L. et al (2013). "Fetal Exposure of Rhesus Macaques to Bisphenol A Alters Cellular Development of the Conducting Airway by Changing Epithelial Secretory Product Expression." Environ Health Perspect 121:912–918.
- Elsworth, J. et al. (2013). "Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A impacts midbrain dopamine neurons and hippocampal spine synapses in non-human primates." NeuroToxicology 35, 113–120.
- Hunt, P. et al. (2012). "Bisphenol A alters early oogenesis and follicle formation in the fetal ovary of the rhesus monkey." PNAS.
- Tharp, A. et al. (2012). "Bisphenol A alters the development of the rhesus monkey mammary gland." PNAS.
- Chapalamadugu, K. et al. (2014). "Maternal Bisphenol A Exposure Impacts the Fetal Heart Transcriptome." PLoS ONE 9(2): e89096.
- Calhoun, K. (2014). "Bisphenol A Exposure Alters Developmental Gene Expression in the Fetal Rhesus Macaque Uterus." PLoS ONE 9(1): e85894.
In the most recent publication published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Reproductive Toxicology on February 25, 2014, the scientists from the University of Missouri report that in contrast to silastic capsule (SC) implantation, oral bolus exposure is not an appropriate human exposure model for BPA. With SC implantation serum doses of 3.5 ng/ml unconjugated BPA were obtained, levels similar to those found in pregnant women. The researchers observed differences in pharmacokinetics between pre-pregnancy, early and late pregnancy hypothesized to reflect changes in maternal, fetal and placental physiology. The study was carried out on female rhesus monkeys and their fetuses, which are more similar to human fetuses than rat fetuses. In BPA exposed fetuses, effects on mammary glands, ovaries, brain, uterus, lung and heart tissue were found.
Science 2.0 (February 27, 2014). “BPA Implicated In Primate Organ Development.”
vom Saal, F.S. et al. (2014). “Bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics with daily oral bolus or continuous exposure via silastic capsules in pregnant rhesus monkeys: Relevance for human exposures” Reproductive Toxicology (published online February 25, 2014).