The Chinese Alcoholic Drinks Association (CADA) admitted in the end of 2012 that virtually all of Chinese wine contains residues of phthalates, which can likely be attributed to migration from packaging and manufacturing equipment.
The average level of phthalates is 0.537 mg/kg wine. In wine from a leading brand, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-2-ethylheyxyl phthalate (DEHP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were found. The Chinese migration limit for DBP is 0.3 mg/kg. In the U.S. butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diisonyl phthalate (DINP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), dihexyl phthalate and diphenyl phthalate (DPP) are authorized as indirect food additives. In Europe DEHP, BBP, DINP, dibutylphthalate (DBP), diallyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and certain phthalic acids are authorized for plastic food contact materials. Phthalates are considered carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or reprotoxic by the European Chemical Agency and are known endocrine disruptors. They have been linked to reduced male fecundity, breast cancer and increased body weight.