Review of technologies for PHA production

Scientists review three main routes for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production, including microbiological, enzymatic, chemical; microbiological and chemical routes most favorable for scaling-up; remaining high costs compared to fossil-based plastics necessitate search for cheaper feedstocks, optimization of production efficiencies

Inorganic elements in PHA bioplastics

Scientists measure content and migration of inorganic elements from polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA); report higher levels in PHA produced from municipal waste and wastewater sludge fractions compared to PHA produced from fruit wastes; in all cases migration below set migration limits