Hazards of food contact materials: Food packaging contaminants
- Published article DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-378612-8.00218-3
Packaging of food serves many purposes. Logistics and transportation, marketing and consumer information, and preservation and storage of foods are enabled and enhanced by packaging. However, materials that come into direct contact with foods are also always potential sources of chemical food contamination and the relevance of this source is often underestimated. The process of chemical transfer from the packaging to the food is known as migration. Analysis and quantification of migrants from food contact materials can be achieved by different means. Regulation of chemicals for use in food contact materials is managed on a substance-by-substance approach with generic or specific thresholds for different contaminants.
Food contact materials: Practices, agencies and challenges
- Published article DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-6500-2_11
Foods and beverages are often processed and packaged before we consume them. Any material that intentionally comes into contact with foodstuffs is called food contact material (FCM). Many FCMs are plastics or are made of synthetic polymeric materials, like coatings and adhesives. Individual chemicals used for the manufacture of FCMs are called food contact substances (FCS). Specific regulations aim at limiting the migration of FCS into the food, thereby reducing risks of chronic chemical exposure to human health. However, FCMs are an under-recognized source of chemical food contamination. Currently, around 4,000 substances are used in FCMs. The challenge of determining which FCSs are present in food and beverages by chemical analysis is further increased by non-intentionally added substances (NIASs) that are impurities and breakdown products, or formed as reaction by-products of polymerization processes. Over the last few decades, scientific research has increased our understanding of risks linked to chronic chemical exposures. Of particular concern are endocrine disrupting chemicals that affect our body’s hormone systems, mixture effects of chemicals present at individual no-effect levels, transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic effects, and the importance of protecting the developing fetus and infant from harmful chemical exposures. Taken together, these research findings offer important opportunities for prevention of chronic disease. This chapter summarizes current use, regulation and risk assessment of FCMs in the United States of America (U.S.) and the European Union (E.U.). Challenges to the risk assessment process arising from recent scientific insights are discussed, and recommendations how to address these challenges are made.
Chemical migration from food packaging to food
- Published article DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.03311-4
Food packaging and other materials that are used to store or process foods are known as food contact materials (FCMs). FCMs can transfer chemicals into food, and this process is known as migration. It depends on temperature, storage time, and chemical and physical properties of both the FCM and the foodstuff. Both intentionally added substances and non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) can migrate into food. Overall migration testing analyzes the total mass transfer from an FCM into food and is a qualitative measure for the inertness of a packaging material. Migration is studied in order to assess the human health risk of a chemical ingested with food.